The Consequences of Suspension and What Schools Can Do Instead
Student misbehavior can be extremely disruptive to learning. It causes teachers and administrators stress and costs classmates the valuable instructional time that the teacher has to instead spend on addressing behavior issues. One disciplinary action that is often used to punish behavior problems is out-of-school suspension.
According to some estimates, every year, nearly three million students face out-of-school suspension. Suspension affects minorities and students with disabilities at a higher rate than their peers. The June 2021 edition of the U.S. Department of Education (ED) report on exclusionary discipline from the 2017–18 Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) survey showed: “In 2017–18, Black students received one or more in-school suspensions (31.4%) and one or more out-of-school suspensions (38.2%) at rates that were more than twice their share of total student enrollment (15.1%).” Additionally, the report stated: “Students with disabilities served under IDEA represented 13.2% of total student enrollment but received 20.5% of one or more in-school suspensions and 24.5% of one or more out-of-school suspensions.”
One of the issues with out-of-school suspension is that it is a disciplinary action that has academic implications. In fact, a 2021 study by the American Institutes for Research found that in-school and out-of-school suspensions not only are ineffective for students in middle and high school but also have negative effects on academic outcomes, attendance, and future behavior.
Here is a closer look at some of the unintended consequences of suspension:
1. Lack of trust
Suspension can be perceived by students as a rejection, and this can lead to a lack of trust between students and their teachers. When students lose trust, they lose the benefits of forming the relationships that help them feel connected to their teachers and administrators.
2. Loss of learning and sinking grades
Students lose valuable instruction and learning time whenever they are taken out to the classroom, and many schools have a no-makeup policy for work missed because of suspension. This time adds up quickly, and it’s not uncommon for students’ grades to drop as a result. Research has shown that when it comes to education, attendance is essential to success, so pulling students out of class when there could be other options seems like a waste of valuable instructional time.
3. Parent inconvenience
When students, especially younger ones, are suspended from school, parents and caregivers are left to figure out what to do with their child for the day. This may mean missing work, paying for unexpected childcare, or even leaving a young child home alone if there isn’t another option. For many families, this is an additional stress they can’t afford.
4. Achievement gap increases
Because minority and special education students are disproportionately affected by suspension, they are exposed to the academic downside at a higher rate as well. Students who get suspended frequently are less likely to pass classes and state assessments, and this may also impact graduation rates.
It’s clear from the data that suspension may not be an effective way to discipline students, but what is the answer? Teachers and administrators can’t be expected to sacrifice the learning of the other students in the classroom because of a student’s misbehavior, and students need to understand that there are consequences for their actions.
Many schools are taking on the challenge of finding alternative ways to manage behavior.
1. Circle discussions
Some schools are using restorative justice practices as an alternate to suspensions. Circle discussions are a more relational approach to addressing student behavior, and they have experienced drops in their suspension rates since implementation. These discussions are designed to help provide all parties involved with a sense of equality. It’s important that everyone has a chance to speak and everyone has a chance to listen so that there is a mutual understanding.
2. Early-warning indicators
Dedicated social-emotional learning (SEL) programs and an SEL-positive school culture can make it so that all students have the opportunity to feel seen and heard and capable of coping and communicating negative feelings to hopefully minimize disruptions to their learning and reduce chronic stress. Research consistently finds that students participating in SEL programs showed improved classroom behavior, an increased ability to manage stress and depression, and better attitudes about themselves, others, and school.
3. Support programs
Some schools are implementing programs like the Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) framework funded by ED to improve school environments. PBIS supports appropriate behavior, and studies have seen positive effects on the students.
4. Access to mental health services
Mental health and behavioral health services are critical to supporting and developing the whole learner, as well as creating a safe, supportive environment where learning can occur. According to the National Association of School Psychologists, mental health services are a growing and unmet need among children and youth, and mentally healthy children are more successful in school and life. In October 2022, ED announced two grant programs to provide funding to schools to increase the number of credentialed school-based mental health professionals and support districts in hiring additional school-based mental health service providers in high-need districts by boosting the mental health profession pipeline.
These processes are making a positive impact on suspension rates, and it’s encouraging to see schools pursue them. To learn more about ways to minimize discipline issues in your school or classroom, check out our blog posts on social-emotional learning.
This post was originally published April 2018 by Alexis Brakebill and has been updated.